About Us | Search | FAQ | Contact Us
ISix Pillars of Financial Innovation
Six people seated around the walls of a darkened room. In the open middle space is a chair. Who finds it? Those that sat still and philosophised about where chairs are usually placed in rooms? The innovator who would locate it is the one who'd get up, walk and stumble until he discovered it. Nobody ever found anything whilst sitting down. So QED don't be afraid to stumble. - Charles Kettering
Ease of entry
In the wholesale financial markets, the costs of developing products are even lower. One of the most successful product launches was that of a currency option based structure. The object of the product was to lower the costs for corporations wanting to tender for overseas contracts. Let us consider a group of UK firms bidding separately for a contract in the US. The theory was that they could buy one currency option to sell US Dollars and buy GB Pounds and split the costs of the option amongst themselves. This product was the Shared Currency Option Under Tender (SCOUT).
We drew up legal documentation, produced marketing literature and called the press. The product launch successfully generated widespread publicity but not a single SCOUT was sold! I don't believe that any client even asked for a quotation. But so what? Who knows to this day that the product was a complete flop in terms of business generated. But it increased awareness of the bank's capabilities in treasury products and led to standard options business.
So it has been in the world of financial product innovation. In the late 1980s Spanish banks began to pay interest on cheque accounts. The competition was described in war-like terms: as "La Guerra de Super Cuentas". Banco Santander was generally credited with having started this 'super account war'. But it was Barclays Bank that introduced interest on current accounts into its relatively small operation in Spain.
Fixed rate mortgages
cannot be patented.
Six pillars of financial innovation
There are six main pillars of financial innovation:
1 Competitive Innovation
2 Regulatory Innovation
3 Accounting Innovation
4 Taxation Innovation
5 Religious Innovation
6 Ignorance Innovation.
But in a free market with low-cost ease of access though the internet, unless firms can develop new financial instruments that meet the changing needs of the market place they will be by-passed. It is no good just being on the right track. If you just stand there you will be run over.
So competitive innovation seeks to provide a firm's clients with better solutions to its problems. Banks thereby hope to generate a higher market share or a higher profit through satisfying the customer's needs - the famously touted 'needs-driven approach'. A banks marketing director who religiously stuck to this approach and proudly stated that he never mentioned products to customers. At the end of the day a bank's marketing team has to provide their customers with a product or a service.
Of the six pillars of financial innovation competative Innovation is the most difficult and rarest. There is no free lunch here and margins are slim with such innovation. But unsurprisingly the other forms of financial innovation described below are dressed up for customer consumption to look like Competitive Innovation.
In 1978 there were very strict quantitative controls on bank lending in the UK. The growth in Interest bearing eligible liabilities (IBELs) was controlled with strict penalties imposed by the Bank of England on banks that exceeded permitted growth. Several regulatory arbitrage schemes were employed to maintain bank lending but avoid paying penalties. The bank loaned money through Bankers Acceptances which if sold on did not count as IBELs. Lending was also done through the bank's Paris branch. Such offshore lending even denominated in Sterling did not count for IBELs. And where possible lending was carried out between "make-up days", the dates on which the monthly balance sheets were drawn up for Bank of England reporting purposes. This was to such an extent that the bank's IBELs used to fall after the make-up days by as much as 30 per cent.
Regulatory Innovation could also include products such as credit derivatives and insurance derivatives. There is a grey area between insurance and banking and the treatment of similar instruments is quite different between them. It pays to be able to choose to book structures in either an insurance company or bank on a case by case basis.
A number of products have also been target specifically at fund managers with tight regulatory controls. Many such managers are not authorised to use derivatives. But they can buy investments with built in derivatives structures to provide them with the gearing and risk pattern they seek. Such products were designed specifically for some highly regulated investment funds. In some cases individual institutional investors have bought entire issues of highly geared bonds.
Zero coupon bonds and deep discounted securities were initially tax driven products in addition to their portfolio immunisation benefits. In most jurisdictions, capital gains was generally until fairly recently taxed much more favourably, if taxed at all, than income. Interest was converted into capital gains by various methods. Such schemes are no longer tax efficient.
Taxation Innovation is on the wane as many jurisdictions now have the right to retrospectively tax what they deem to be tax avoidance schemes.
Islamic Banking is more than the prohibition of interest. In conventional banking terms, it is about the introduction of a no pain no gain system of banking or venture capital investment. But the vast majority of Islamic Banking schemes amount to converting interest into capital gains. The processes here were very similar to the tax minimisation schemes involving interest elimination. Fifteen years ago zero coupon bonds and treasury bills were acceptable. Whilst these instruments are no longer Islamically acceptable, other interest into capital gains structures leaving no risk to the investor are still acceptable.
Religious Innovation is not just limited to Islamic Banking. Many non-Islamic countries have usury laws to control maximum interest rates payable by consumers. And recently a number of ethical investment funds have been created to channel funds into firms not dealing with items such as tobacco , alcohol and armaments.
Sometimes the ignorance may apply not to the corporate treasurer doing the deal but to his superiors. Such innovation falls under Accounting innovation.
Some public cases where customers may have believed that they were victims of Ignorance innovation. Perpetual Floating Rate Notes were issued by banks in the mid 1980s. FRNs traditionally had maturities between 5 years and 15 years. Naturally, they did not count as primary capital in the same way as did retained earnings or shareholders'funds. So banks issued FRNs but with no maturity date. The structure was akin to preference shares but with floating rates. There was no obligation to repay the 'loans' at any time. The ability of an investor to realise his investment crucially depended on an active and liquid secondary market. And this was limited as banks that held other banks' Perpetual FRNs found that their capital base was reduced by regulators in line with their holdings of such "Perps". Gradually it dawned upon investors the true nature of these Perps. They had bought bank liability instruments that they believed were almost like deposits but paying 25 basis points over LIBOR. As investors stormed out of positions in the Perpetual FRNs, prices crashed within days to 80 per cent of the par value they had been trading. The yield was now a more reasonable but still low 250 basis points over LIBOR for bank equity. A case of what appeared to be Regulatory Innovation was really Ignorance Innovation
Warren Edwardes is CEO of Delphi Risk Management, the London-based financial product creativity, communication and control consultancy. He is founder of the b2b internet start-up school of banking.com at the London international school of banking and finance.
Warren was previously on the board of Charterhouse Bank and has worked in the treasury divisions of Barclays Bank, British Gas and Midland Bank. He first researched into what were later to be called "derivatives" in 1975 and was part of the team that executed one of the world's first currency swaps in 1981. Since then he has devised and transacted numerous structures that form part of the history of derivatives.
|Home | About Us | Search | FAQ | Contact Us|